Police Reform Improvements and Benchmarks

What efforts are communities implementing to reform their police departments? How can cities use benchmarking data to understand these reforms impact?

PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS | Sep 18, 2020

Prepared By: Samantha Corrales

Research Question: "Our City is looking at incorporating work on improvements to policing in our Strategic Plan. Does the Alliance for Innovation have any resources related to what efforts other communities are undertaking to address police reform? Information about approaches and any benchmarking data being used to measure improvement efforts would be appreciated."

Executive Summary & Analysis (Key Points) 

  1. Policy Reform 

  • Ban the use of chokeholds, carotid artery neck restraints or similar tactics 
  • Duty to Intervene  
  • Breonna’s Law  
  1.  Police Funding  

  • Reducing funding for the police budget  
  1. Commitment to Transparency and Accountability  

  • Investigations on the use of deadly force 
  • Civilian Review Board 
  • Community Orientated Policing 
  1. Benchmarking Resources 

  • National League of Cities (NLC) 

  • International Association of Chiefs of Police ( IACP) 

  • City Performance Scorecards - City of San Francisco  

Research Findings 

1. Policy Reform 

Ban the use of chokeholds, carotid artery neck restraints, or similar tactics 

Duty to Intervene  

  • The City of Cambridge adopted the “Duty to Intervene” policy in order to encourage the Cambridge Police Department to present at any scene where physical force is being applied, to either stop, or attempt to stop, another member of the Department when force is being unreasonably applied or is no longer required.  

  • Please click on this link to learn more about how the City of Cambridge will be implementing this within their community. https://www.cambridgema.gov/~/media/Files/policedepartment/Policies/generalorder2013dutytointervene.pdf 

Breonna’s Law  

  • In a unanimous vote, the Louisville Metro Council has banned the use of “No-Knock” warrants after passing Breonna’s Law, an ordinance which also sets guidelines for the execution of all search warrants by Louisville Metro Police officers and requires active body camera whenever a warrant is served. 

  • Breonna’s Law came about following the death of 26 year-old-Breonna Taylor on March 13th who was killed in her apartment after the execution of a “No-Knock” warrant. 

  • Please click on this link to learn more about how the City of Louisville will be implementing this within their community. https://louisvilleky.gov/news/metro-council-passes-breonna%E2%80%99s-law-%E2%80%9Cno-knock%E2%80%9D-warrants-are-banned-lmpd 

2. Police Funding  

Reducing funding for the police budget  

3. Commitment to Transparency and Accountability  

Investigations on the use of deadly force 

  • City of San Jose will be moving beyond the “internal affairs” model by instituting independent investigation of allegations of excessive uses of force and racial discrimination, and otherwise expanding the scope and authority of the Office of the Independent Auditor 

  • Please click on this link to learn more about the City of San Jose’s plans. https://www.sanjoseca.gov/Home/Components/News/News/1480/4699 

Civilian Review Board 

Community-Orientated Policing 

 

4. Benchmarking Resources 

National League of Cities (NLC): Policing in the 21st Century  

  • This report aims to promote transparency and fostering trust between the community and law enforcement agencies. This guide is designed for local elected leaders offering guidance on how law enforcement officials can implement the principles of community policing.  

  • It is also based around President Obama’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. The six recommended pillars are described as 

  • Building Trust and Legitimacy 
  • Policy and Oversight 
  • Technology and Social Media 
  • Community Policing and Crime Reduction 
  • Officer Training and Education 
  • Officer Safety and Wellness 
  • NLC is looking to achieve more:  

  • Foster trust 
  • Align policies with community values 
  • Embrace new technologies 
  • Prioritize community engagement 
  • Invest in training 
  • Cultivate the well-being of office 
  • For further information, please visit this link: https://www.nlc.org/sites/default/files/2016-12/NLC%20Community%20Policing%20Guide%20updated%2071516_0.pdf 

International Association of Chiefs of Police ( IACP) 

  • This benchmarking resource is data driven for better decision making 

  • The Benchmarking Portal is a resource for conducting comparative analyses with peer agencies and is free for participating agencies. 

  • This tool has the ability to input data on a variety of variables, from agency demographics to crime and arrest rates, and see graphic visualizations of where your agency stands relative to similarly sized agencies.   

  • For further information, please visit this link: https://www.theiacp.org/benchmarking 

City Performance Scorecards - City of San Francisco  

  • The dashboards below show how San Francisco compares to peer jurisdictions across performance metrics for violent crime, property crime, motor vehicle break-ins and police staffing, using publicly available Unified Crime Reporting (UCR) data. While the Controller’s Office has made efforts to ensure that performance data and analysis is as consistent as possible across peers, benchmark comparisons are not always apples-to-apples. 

  • This dashboard highlights 3 main focus areas and specific address different data points within these topics 

  • Crime 
  • Police Staffing 
  • 911 Call and Response  
  • For further information, please visit this link: https://sfgov.org/scorecards/benchmarking/public-safety 

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