Research Request: Academic Institution Collaborations

There are a few member communities that are interested in establishing a collaborative relationship with their local academic institutions. Are there examples of MOUs or other agreements that local governments have in place to facilitate these relationships?

PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS | Dec 20, 2019

Summary of Findings

Academic institutions and different communities often work together when they have joint interests and/or reside in the same community:

“Universities can assume a variety of roles in economic, social and cultural development and collaborations with city governments and community organizations can be mutually fulfilling ….The increasing interest by both city governments and universities in expanding roles and activities in regional economic development can create the opening to redefine a university/city relationship.” (Curry, n.d.).

Their joint interests may revolve around goals for economic development, financial assistance, urban renewal and infrastructure, housing, talent retention, workforce development, community engagement and education, technology and innovation goals, and public safety. These partnerships and agreements result in shared services of police and fire, internship programs, technical assistance by the university, research projects, community education, or very specific collaborative agreements with a university department or city department. However, the partnership may not always be local; some universities partner with other municipalities around the world. Additionally, some communities have informally partnered with their local or even distant academic institution for years due to historic reasons and the permanency of academic institutions. When a community and institution choose to formulate an agreement, they are acknowledging that each other are important and creating an opportunity for a working relationship to create solutions together.

Some different examples of these collaborations and partnerships include: Brown University and City of Providence, RI; University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati, OH; University of Chicago in Chicago, IL; Cornell University and Ithaca, NY; UC Davis and Sacramento, CA; Harvard and Boston, MA; Penn State and State College Borough, PN; University of Portland and Portland, OR; Virginia Tech and Roanoke, VA; Virginia Tech and Alexandria, VA; Virginia Cooperative Extension and Powhatan County, VA; and University of Wyoming and City of Laromie, WY. Some academic institutions outside of the US also host partnerships with communities, including University of Birmingham and Nanjing, China; Stellenbosch University and Garden Route South Africa and Hessequa in South Africa.

 

Academic Institution

Municipality

Year

Type of Partnership

Memorandum of Understanding?

Notes and Resources

Brown University

Providence, Rhode Island

2003 MOU, 2012 MOA

Financial assistance

Yes (available)

Memorandum of Understanding

Memorandum of Agreement

Brown builds on its commitment to Providence and Rhode Island

 

University of Birmingham in London, England

Nanjing China

2018

Economic Development, Technical Support and Research

Yes (not available)

https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/news/latest/2018/05/birmingham-signs-partner-mou-with-nanjing-government.aspx

 

University of Cincinnati

City of Cincinnati, Ohio

2009

Mutual Assistance Aid, Shared services

Yes (available)

 

Mutual Assistance In-Progress Crime Assistance Agreement Between the City of Cincinnati and the University of Cincinnati

 

University of Chicago

City of Chicago, Illinois

 

2015

 Economic Development, Diversity

Yes (available)

Memorandum of Understanding

 

City of Chicago Department of Housing and Economic Development

 

Cornell University 

 

 

Ithaca, New York 

2012, 2013 

Financial assistance and Research Projects 

No (financial assistance) Yes, Memorandum of Agreement for  

https://www.cityofithaca.org/AgendaCenter/ViewFile/Agenda/_04152019-1847 

 

http://ccetompkins.org/resources/cornell-cce-tompkins-memorandum-of-agreement 

 

USDA Agriculture Projects with Cornell Cooperative Extension Association of Tompkins County  

UC Davis

Sacramento, California

2018

Facility expansion and Economic Development

No

Creation of Aggie Square, new center for innovation

 

Inclusive Economic Development

 

Life sciences, food systems, mobility, government, civic technology, arts and communications.

 

 

 

Harvard

Boston, Massachusetts

multiple

Economic Development and Community Education

No, 5 Cooperative Agreements

https://community.harvard.edu/files/comm/files/bostoncooperationagreementannualreport2018.pdf

 

Science Complex Cooperation Agreement (4/2/08)

 

28 Travis Street Cooperation Agreement (1/2/14)

 

IMP Cooperation Agreement (7/10/14)

 

Harvard Life Lab Cooperation  Agreement (4/8/16)

 

Harvard ArtLab Cooperation  Agreement (4/24/18)

Pennsylvania State University

State College Borough, Pennsylvania

2014

Research Projects

No, Community Collaborative

Sustainability

 

https://sustainability.psu.edu/live/staff/sustainable-communities-collaborative

 

https://www.collegian.psu.edu/news/borough/article_ad5041f8-83e1-11e3-8e61-001a4bcf6878.html

 

University of Portland

Portland, Oregon

2009

Technical Expertise and Student Internship

Yes (available)

https://www.pdx.edu/sites/www.pdx.edu.ims/files/ims_symposiummou.pdf

Stellenbosch University

Garden Route, Western Cape Province of South Africa

2018

Technical Support and Research

Yes (not available)

http://www.gardenroute.gov.za/2018/05/29/eden-dm-council-approves-mou-with-stellenbosch-university/

Stellenbosch University

 

Hessequa Local Municipality, South Africa

2015

Economic Development

Yes (available)

Memorandum of Understanding

 

http://www.hessequa.gov.za/information-center/stellenbosch-university-mou/?print=pdf

 

University of Tasmania

City of Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

2018

Economic Development, and Student Research Projects

Yes (available)

Memorandum of Understanding

 

Infrastructure Developments

 

Internships and projects

 

Virginia Tech

Alexandria, Virginia

2018

Facility expansion and Economic Development

Yes (available)

Creation of Innovation Campus to attract Amazon headquarters

 

https://hqnova.com/assets/pdfs/NOVA_MOU_Innovation_Campus.pdf

 

Virginia Tech and Virginia State University (Virginia Cooperative Extension)

Powhatan County, Virginia

2014

Educational Programs, Student Research Projects, and Technical Expertise

Yes

Memorandum of Understanding

 

Agriculture and Natural Resources, Family and Consumer Sciences, 4-H Youth Development, and Community Viability.

https://virginia-beach.ext.vt.edu/

 

Virginia Tech

Roanoke, Virginia

2012

Student Research Projects, Economic Development

No, Virginia Cooperative Extension land grant

Industrial Systems & Engineering and Police Department, Social Services, Building Inspections, and Planning, Transportation

 

 

 

University of Wyoming

City of Laramie, Wyoming

2017

Shared Service

Yes (available)

Memorandum of Understanding

 

Academic Institutions U.S. City Partnerships

 

Brown University and Providence, Rhode Island

Financial assistance

Memorandum of Understanding

This Memorandum of Understanding (“Memorandum”) between the four Institutions and Page 2 of 8 the City sets forth the understandings of the parties with respect to financial assistance to be provided to the City by the Institutions. By entering into this Memorandum, the Institutions acknowledge the importance of the relationship between the Institutions and the City and, therefore, agree to make additional voluntary contributions to the City. The parties recognize that the Institutions, like other nonprofit, religious, and charitable organizations, provide substantial economic and non-economic benefits to the City and the community.

Memorandum of Agreement

The parties recognize that Brown provides substantial economic, educational and non-economic benefits to the City and the community. Further, Brown is amenable to working with the City to advance the growth of Brown while simultaneously assisting the City. In recognition of the parties' mutual interests, Brown and the City have therefore entered into this Agreement as follows

Brown builds on its commitment to Providence and Rhode Island

On Tuesday, May 1, 2012, Brown President Ruth J. Simmons, Gov. Lincoln Chafee, and Mayor Angel Taveras announced an agreement that will benefit the University, the state and the city. Brown will provide an additional $31.5 million in support for the city over the next 11 years, and the city and state will support and facilitate Brown’s continuing efforts to develop itself as an internationally renowned research environment.

 

City of Chicago and Chicago University

Economic Development

Memorandum of Understanding:

The purpose of this document is to outline how the Parties intend to work together in collaboration with the community to facilitate economic opportunity for neighboring residents and local, minority- and women-owned businesses, and more efficiently deploy City and University financial and personnel resources.

https://news.uchicago.edu/story/university-city-create-memorandum-understanding-promote-economic-development-south-side

Officials from the University and the City of Chicago have agreed to a Memorandum of Understanding on economic development, creating a framework for cooperative planning and execution of projects that will foster growth and jobs on the South Side.

The memorandum lays out a path for pursuing initiatives that will foster growth. Each party lays out specific steps it will take to promote economic opportunity. Together, the University and City commit to collaborating with one another and with local officials and communities on these shared goals.

 

University of Cincinnati and City of Cincinnati, OH

Mutual Assistance Aid, Shared services

Memorandum of Understanding

Cooperative In Progress Crime Assistance upon request and without request between UC and Cincinnati

 

Cornell University and City of Ithaca, NY (and Cornell Cooperative Extension Association of Tompkins County) 

Financial Assistance, and Research Projects  

Memorandum of Agreement 

https://www.cityofithaca.org/AgendaCenter/ViewFile/Agenda/_04152019-1847 

http://ccetompkins.org/resources/cornell-cce-tompkins-memorandum-of-agreement 

https://ithacavoice.com/2019/04/how-much-should-they-pay-city-reopens-discussion-on-cornells-local-contribution/ 

 

 

UC Davis and City of Sacramento, California

Facility Expansion and Economic Development

https://regionalchange.ucdavis.edu/sites/g/files/dgvnsk986/files/inline-files/Aggie-Square-Full%20Report-FINAL-4.22.19.pdf https://leadership.ucdavis.edu/aggie-square

Aggie Square is a joint effort of UC Davis and the City of Sacramento, together with multiple other partners. Launched in 2018, the initiative is intended to advance academic programs, propel economic growth, develop industry partnerships, build more resilient communities, create shared public spaces, and contribute to sustainable, healthy neighborhood environments. The initiative is described by the university as follows:

https://www.sacbee.com/opinion/editorials/article124840579.html

University of California, Davis, and the city of Sacramento recently announced the establishment of Aggie Square, a 25-acre playground for the digitally curious. Outfitted with 1 million square feet of research, incubator and accelerator space, members of UC Davis and government officials see this as a stepping stone for all parties involved.

Located on the UC Davis Sacramento Campus, Aggie Square will house business partners and community-based programs with UC Davis innovation and research to create a stronger and healthier shared community.

“Building this new center of innovation alongside the existing UC Davis Health campus will not only ensure a tight connection to the school’s great minds and resources but will also create jobs and economic development in the heart of Oak Park, along with more real opportunity for young people from all low-income neighborhoods in Sacramento,” Mayor Darrell Steinberg says in a statement.

(Other sources):

https://edtechmagazine.com/higher/article/2018/07/universities-partner-cities-boost-budgets-technology-projects

https://www.sacbee.com/opinion/editorials/article191298784.html

 

Harvard and City of Boston, Massachusetts

Economic Development and Community Education

https://community.harvard.edu/files/comm/files/bostoncooperationagreementannualreport2018.pdf

Harvard is proud to partner with the City of Boston and the Allston-Brighton neighborhood to create strong collaborations around lifelong learning, local improvement projects, arts efforts, and educational initiatives. The University community is excited to see these partnerships grow— and our neighbors thrive.

Harvard has a valued, longtime partnership with the Allston-Brighton neighborhood and the City of Boston. Many partnerships are memorialized as commitments that are part of Harvard’s five active cooperation agreements  with the City of Boston:

Science Complex Cooperation Agreement (4/2/08)

28 Travis Street Cooperation Agreement (1/2/14)

IMP Cooperation Agreement (7/10/14)

Harvard Life Lab Cooperation  Agreement (4/8/16)

Harvard ArtLab Cooperation  Agreement (4/24/18)

 

Arts & Culture

Art exhibitions and receptions; ceramics community scholarships; ARTS FIRST Allston; live performances; Western Ave. Arts Walk; school vacation art camps; creative economy events.

Economic Development

Trainings on social media for businesses, website strategy, and business writing; business certification information sessions; local business networking opportunities.

Workforce Development

Job seeker connection groups; Harvard Extension School scholarships; computer skills and job search workshops.

Public School Partnerships

Professional development for Boston Public Schools teachers; family engagement events and trainings; college readiness programs for Allston-Brighton youth; on-campus and in-school programming.

Faculty Speaker Series

Public lectures with Harvard faculty; interactive discussions; engaging content—from cities to sustainability.

Youth Programming

Mentoring and enrichment clubs (grades 1–12) with Harvard undergraduates; homework coaching for middle and high school students; Summer Explorations; workforce training.

Health & Wellness

Yoga classes; Harvard Athletics scholarships; access to Blodgett Pool and Harvard’s Bright-Landry Hockey Center; memberships to Harvard gyms; bike workshops.

Digital Learning & HarvardX for Allston

Tech Talks; digital learning through HarvardX 101; panel discussions; skills training; resources for lifelong learners.

 

Pennsylvania State University and State College Borough, PN

Research Projects

Sustainable Communities Collaborative

The Sustainable Communities Collaborative (SCC) connects University Park faculty, students, and staff with local communities to address sustainability challenges through an engaged, collaborative effort. Innovative University/community-based collaborations are developed to engage PSU faculty and students in existing courses from across the University with real world, community-identified projects to meet the partnering community’s sustainability priorities. Each project is a facilitated effort, involving interdisciplinary faculty expertise and students, co-led by a key community leader and the University’s SCC staff, to help develop and support thriving, healthy communities and advance student learning about the scholarship of sustainability. 

Partner: State College Borough

The State College Borough has been an SCC partner since the beginning in 2013. The borough is home to more than 42,000 residents, 75 percent of whom are Penn State students. The borough strives to create a community that entices visitors with their many historic, social, and retail attractions - but also a diverse community that can be home to students, young professionals, internationals, and retirees alike. Having committed to a Climate Protection Community in 2007, the Borough has also taken many steps to make State College an environmentally friendly community, such as purchasing green energy, installing rain gardens, recycling food waste, and restoring wetlands. Many areas of State College are also bike- and pedestrian-friendly, with an ever-increasing number of bikeways. As put by the Mayor of State College, “We are committed to a green lifestyle, reducing our energy footprint, and sharing what we have learned with our residents so that the entire State College community can work together to further our broad environmental commitment.”

Partnership between Penn State and borough provides experience for students and solutions for community

The Sustainable Communities Collaborative is one of the signature projects of the Sustainability Institute at Penn State, Sustainability Institute Director Denice Wardrop said. State College Borough is the partner for the pilot program. The collaboration links courses offered at Penn State with sustainability priorities in the community. Students from five courses across four colleges engaged in six projects last semester. Projects included the promotion of bicycling, development of a better system to organize the borough’s municipal repair warehouse, the development of rain gardens for storm water management, projects to make parking and pedestrian travel more efficient and a study to improve recruitment of professionals and volunteers. During remarks, State College Borough manager Tom Fountaine said the relationship benefits students by providing real-world experience. The borough, in turn, benefits from the knowledge and fresh perspectives provided by Penn State faculty and students, he said.

University of Portland and City of Portland, OR

Technical Expertise and Student Internship

Memorandum of Understanding

Focus on strategic cooperation to achieve sustainability goals and economic development to address uneven development of city.

http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1106&context=usp_fac

 

Virginia Tech and City of Alexandria, Virginia

Facility expansion and Economic Development

Memorandum of Understanding

Creation of MOU to expand facilities of Virginia Tech, specifically creating an Innovation Campus by Virginia Tech to attract Amazon headquarters.

 

Virginia Tech/ Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) with County of Powhatan

Educational Programs, Student Research Projects, and Technical Expertise

https://virginia-beach.ext.vt.edu/

The City of Virginia Beach office of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) is your local connection to Virginia's land-grant universities, Virginia Tech and Virginia State University. Through educational programs based on research and developed with input from local stakeholders, we help the people of City of Virginia Beach improve their lives. We provide education through programs in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Family and Consumer Sciences, 4-H Youth Development, and Community Viability.

https://ext.vt.edu/

https://virginia-beach.ext.vt.edu/programs.html

MOU with Powhatan County, Virginia

Introduction: Memorandum of Understanding between Virginia Cooperative Extension (Virginia Tech and Virginia State University) and the County of Powhatan, Virginia Established in 1914, Cooperative Extension was designed as a partnership of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Land-Grant Universities, and local governments. Today, Virginia Cooperative Extension provides research based educational programs to the people of the Commonwealth through Extension Agents in 106 county and city offices.

Local citizens are engaged in helping Extension agents design, implement and evaluate educational programs in the areas of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 4-H Youth Development, Family and Consumer Sciences, and Community Viability to address the educational needs of local residents.

Agriculture and Natural Resources

Agriculture and natural resources (ANR) programs help sustain the profitability of agricultural and forestry production and enhance and protect the quality of our land and water resources. We help the agriculture indust1y use the most current technology and management practices to develop strong businesses that prosper in today's economy. We deliver programs that help put research-based knowledge to work for Virginia's agriculture industry.

4-H Youth Development

4-H is a community of young people across America who are learning leadership, citizenship, and life skills. 4-H, the largest comprehensive youth development program in the nation, educates young people, ages 5-18, through a variety of experiential techniques that encourage hands-on, active learning.

Family and Consumer Sciences

Virginia Cooperative Extension views the family unit as the cornerstone of a healthy community. We strive to improve the well-being of Virginia families through programs that help participants put research-based knowledge to work in their lives in the areas of family financial management, family and human development, and nutrition education.

Community Viability

Community viability programs are dedicated to strengthening communities and their economic viability by creating innovative programs that allow citizens and local governments to respond to local issues. Our faculty can assess community needs, design a plan of action, and determine the appropriate delivery method suitable for various programs.

Purpose of Memorandum: The purpose of the memorandum of understanding is to establish a mutual agreement between Virginia Cooperative Extension and, the County of Powhatan related to Extension's administration, programs, personnel, and financial arrangement.

 

Virginia Tech with City of Roanoke Partnership

Student Research Projects, Economic Development

https://www.roanokeva.gov/1004/LEAN-Roanoke#tab5bcaf09a-fb2e-49cf-aaf0-11c53f335ee0_0

During the summer of 2012, the City of Roanoke entered into a 2-pronged partnership with Virginia Tech involving the school’s Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering (ISE) in Blacksburg, Virginia and its Center for Higher Learning in Roanoke, Virginia.

VT I.S.E. Student Projects

Annually, the ISE (Industrial and Systems Engineering) Department solicits Lean capstone projects for its students to complete as a graduation requirement. In September 2012, city projects were submitted, and ISE selected 4 projects in the following areas: Police Department, Social Services, Building Inspections, and Planning. In August 2013, two additional projects from the City’s Transportation Division and the Greater Roanoke Transit Company were chosen and evaluated by a new class of students.  And in August 2014, four additional projects were selected – three from the Police Department and one from the Facilities group at our City Schools.
 
These ten projects provided the students an opportunity to apply classroom training to real world situations while providing a significant benefit to the city departments and ultimately, to citizens and businesses. At the end of each school year, city staff met with the Virginia Tech faculty coordinator to critique the process and make tweaks for the upcoming year.  We anticipate continuing this partnership in 2015 and subsequent years.

 

https://theroanokestar.com/2019/11/15/state-grants-to-help-virginia-tech-stop-local-brain-drain-enhance-blockchain/

 

University of Wyoming and City of Laramie, Wyoming

Service sharing

Memorandum of Understanding

The purpose of this MOU is to establish the terms and conditions under which City Fire Department provides additional emergency medical services during the University 2017-18 football, basketball season and at other sports/special events as requested. In consideration of the matters described above, and of the mutual benefits and obligations set forth in this Agreement, the parties agree as follows

 

Global Academic Institution Partnerships

 

University of Birmingham and Nanjing government

Economic Development, Technical Support and Research

The UK’s University of Birmingham’s Provost and Vice Principal Tim Jones signed an MOU with Nanjing Government’ s Vice Major Mr Yuejian Jiang. https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/news/latest/2018/05/birmingham-signs-partner-mou-with-nanjing-government.aspx

The MOU will see the University work closely with the Municipal Government in the following areas:

  • Research and innovation - encouraging local research institutes, institutions of higher education, and enterprises to work with the University in scientific research and technology innovation.
  • Industrial matchmaking, technology transfer and commercialization – linking Birmingham's scientific and technological projects to Nanjing's enterprises and sci-tech agencies so that research can be transformed into commercial products. Institutions of higher education, and enterprises to work with the University in scientific research and technology innovation.
  • Talent training - nurturing leading sci-tech entrepreneurial talent and personnel working in education, health and public affairs. Promoting student exchanges between Birmingham and Nanjing, whilst helping high-performing students to study in both China and the UK.
  • Academic and people-to-people exchange – Through Nanjing’s Bureau of Culture, Broadcasting & Television and Press & Publication, organizing cultural events showcasing the partnership; developing Shakespeare research and other relevant cultural activities in Nanjing.
  • Medicine and health - supporting Nanjing's medical universities and healthcare organizations to work with the University in clinical medicine, public health, theoretical research, technological service and personnel training.

Through these projects, University of Birmingham will contribute to Nanjing’s regional social and economic development by nurturing partnerships across a range of areas where they can provide research and educational expertise.

The history of collaboration between China and the University of Birmingham dates back almost to the foundation of the University in 1901. The University’s China Institute was created in 2012 to reflect Birmingham’s extensive academic activities its colleagues undertake in China.

 

Stellenbosch University and Garden Route District Municipality

Technical Support and Research

http://www.gardenroute.gov.za/2018/05/29/eden-dm-council-approves-mou-wi...
The following potential research questions and technical support, relating to the functions of Eden DM, are listed in the MOU:

  • Mercury [Lead Pb] levels in fish in the South Cape coastal fishing waters.
  • Green energy initiatives on Eden DM properties (solar and wind).
  • Impact of lead in drinking water on children.
  • Asbestos prevalence in Knysna and Bitou.
  • TB, MDR, XDR in baboons at the Ladismith waste dumping site.
  • Radon exposure prevalence in Oudtshoorn.
  • Antibiotics in milk (Riversdale).
  • Research about Antibiotics in meat.
  • Labelling of genetically modified organisms/food [GMO].
  • Ethics regarding the feeding of animal waste (chicken) to sheep, cattle or pigs.
  • Labelling regards to grain fed pigs vs pigs who eat animal waste.
  • Feeding of food waste to pigs.
  • Cadmium presence in chicken livers in the Eden district.
  • Hormone levels and chemical substances – Crystal Methamphetamine [Tik] in drinking water.
  • The relationship between Avian Influenza and climate change in the Oudtshoorn region.
  • Bromate prevalence in drinking water (Bromate can affect a person’s kidneys).
  • The prevalence of “superbugs” in hospitals and clinics in the District.

 

Stellenbosch University and Hessequa Municipality

Economic Development

http://www.hessequa.gov.za/information-center/stellenbosch-university-mou

Hessequa Municipality and Stellenbosch University signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). The purpose of the MOU is to establish a cooperative relationship, with the objectives to appreciate public value and to facilitate and encourage economic development through innovation projects.

http://www.hessequa.gov.za/information-center/stellenbosch-university-mou/?print=pdf

Themes: Creating Space for Governing Closer to the People, Making Regions and Cities Smart, Institutional Innovation, Other Spheres of Government, Local Government Finance

Hessequa Municipality in collaboration with Stellenbosch Good Governance Forum and Stellenboch University established a Hessequa Innovation Helix (HIH) in March 2015. Hessequa Innovation Helix (HIH) creates a space for innovative thinkers where ideas, plans and programs can be transformed that is sustainable and attainable.

 

University of Tasmania and City of Hobart, Tasmania

 Economic Development, and Student Research Projects

Memorandum of Understanding

This Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the City of Hobart (the City) and the University of Tasmania (the Un1vers1ty) builds on the achievements of the 2009-2012 MOU. It is being entered into with the recognition and acknowledgement of the importance of both organizations to the educational, social, cultural and economic health and wellbeing of the City of Hobart. The MOU has the objective of contributing to the creation of a city that is dynamic, vibrant and attractive through the University's engagement with the economic, cultural and intellectual life of the City of Hobart.

The purpose of this MOU between the City and the University 1s to develop further the strong existing relationship between our two organizations and to identify common strategic objectives and areas of interest. It also establishes the process that will support the 1dentif1cation and effective achievement of a range of projects and activ1t1es over the next three years (2015 to 2018).

In order to effectively realize positive outcomes from this MOU, the City and the University will:

• Establish a framework for collaboration between the two organizations;

• Adopt a cooperative approach to working together for mutual organizational, student and broader community benefit,

• Pursue areas of common strategic interest,

• Actively participate in joint initiatives, projects and activities

• Identify and address common areas of concern that may emerge during the life of the MOU.

 

 

You may also be interested in

Feedback